baffin island government

; it’s all here. Trades with other nations will also be temporarily halted until further notice. This schedule never changes unless in extreme events. Towering mountains and fiords rise from the sea. Nunavut comprises a large portion of the northern tip of the North American continent and a large number of islands on Hudson Bay and the Arctic Ocean. COVID-19 Department of Environment Services update. There are 2 ways to get from Nunavut to Baffin Island by plane. g) All election candidates must be affiliated with a party and submit their manifesto to the Prime Executive before the 2nd week before the election is due to take pl, Prime Secretary’s Announcement 5/4/2020 In the past weeks, the outbreak of the disease CoViD-19 has escalated dramatically. c) An election is held every 2 months. The government of Nunavut has halted the 2019-2020 Baffin Island caribou hunt as the harvest limit has been reached. Since then, we’ve been mining Deposit No. The government of Nunavut has halted the 2019-2020 Baffin Island caribou hunt as the harvest limit has been reached. Much like neighboring Greenland, Baffin contains all the elements that people generally associate with the arctic: midnight sun, the Aurora Borealis, expansive tundra, steep fiords, drifting pack ice, ice caps, glaciers, icebergs, polar bears, caribou, walrus, etc. P.O. No reliable current or historic estimates of population size exist for these caribou. Monumental Island (in the Davis Strait) is located southeast of Baffin Island, almost halfway between Lady Franklin Island and Little Hall Island (named after Charles Francis Hall, 1821-1871, an Arctic explorer). Once in these new communities, the government programs for Inuit were misguided and inadequate, which led to hunger, disease and cultural assimilation. Baffin Island is huge, largest Island in Canada so to cover all in one entry is impossible. Baffin Island Inuit live on ... in 1971. Of that, $700,000 will go to the Nunavut Quest dog sled race — $100,000 a year for the next seven years. They were gradually replaced by snowmobiles. In the east, snow-covered mountain ranges rise more than 8,000 ft (2,440 m). Her story is similar to many who were relocated from camps in Dundas Harbour, South Camp, Paallavvik and Kivitoo. A spectacularly remote land of dramatic scenery, Baffin Island features rugged mountains contrasting the flattest lowlands, and coasts that start with sheer, icy cliff drops. The Nunavut government has lost its appeal in a case involving a young Inuk hunter who harvested a caribou in 2015 during a harvesting moratorium. Ellesmere Island, largest island of the Queen Elizabeth Islands, Baffin region, Nunavut territory, Canada, located off the northwest coast of Greenland. Baffin Island tours, shore excursions, hotels City Tours and Shore Excursions. But Irngaut, who shared the harvested caribou with other Rangers, told Sharkey that he never would have … b) The Prime Secretary is the second in charge, and the deputy should the Prime Executive fall ill or become unable to hold their role. The waters of this region are teeming with marine mammals including narwhal, bowhead,, and beluga whales, as well as walruses and seals. The apology is the first step in the Qikiqtani Inuit Association's (QIA's) action plan to move forward from the wrongs done to Inuit by the government of Canada from 1950 to 1975. Radiocarbon date list 10, Baffin Bay, Baffin Island, Iceland, Labrador Sea, and the northern North Atlantic region "INSTAAR/OP-56." Many visitors are drawn to here to experi… Box 500 Station A Toronto, ON Canada, M5W 1E6. The role of CHEO is one of clinical support, through the Baffin Island Pediatric Health Initiative. Parks Canada. This is the third federal apology to Nunavut Inuit this year. With an area of 195,928 square miles (507,451 square km), it is the largest island in Canada and the fifth largest in the world. The government of Nunavut is responsible for the provision of primary health care services in Baffin Island, maintained through the Nunavut Department of Health and Social Services. To the best of our knowledge, these details are correct as of the last update: 29 Sep 2020. Bennett also acknowledged Canada's "participation in the processes that resulted in the loss of qimmiit, which were key to your culture, survival, and community health.". b) The Prime Secretary is the second in charge, and the deputy should the Prime Executive fall ill or become unable to hold their role. Caribou are a critical component of the terrestrial ecosystem; they are culturally significant to Inuit and provide an important source of food. Panorama from first ascent of Baffin Island's Broad Peak in Canadian Arctic Stephen Trafton is a financial turnaround manager , [1] land speed record holder, [2] Arctic explorer and historian. (Photo by Andrew Tagak) By Meagan Deuling Local Journalism Initiative Reporter . Fly from Iqaluit, travel • 6h 14m. The QIA represents Inuit who live mainly on Baffin Island. GOVERNMENT a) The leader of the government is the Prime Executive. CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF SGOGWM AND THE BAFFIN ISLANDS I. Baffin Island draws the most visitors to Nunavut every year, and it isn’t hard to see why. As part of the 2020 Parliamentary Reshuffle, Matthew Turner has been sworn in as Lord Chief Justice of the Baffin Court. Our mine produces the highest grade of direct shipping iron ore in the world. Opposition to seismic testing in Nunavut continues. Nunavut constitutes the greater part of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, including its largest island, Baffin Island. It is administered as part of Baffin region, Nunavut territory, Canada. Now, as we peer down, the coastline of Baffin Island comes into view. The status of these populations is unknown. The Mary River Property is located at approximately 72 degrees north by 79 degrees west on Baffin Island and consists of nine high-grade iron ore deposits. A hauler truck carries iron ore at the Mary River Mine on Baffin Island. Nunavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᕗᑦ) [7] is an extensive territory in the far North of Canada, located east of the Northwest Territories (of which it used to be part), north of the Canadian provinces of Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec, and west of the Danish territory of Greenland. Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio's travel planner. A-Z Programs & Services Latest News. The COVID-19 pandemic has meant that … There are 3 ways to get from Seattle to Baffin Island by plane. QIA has received $20 million from the government of Canada to develop healing programs, Inuit governance programs and cultural and language revitalization projects. [2] Baffin Bay is a large semi‐enclosed basin adjacent to the North American continent with a maximum depth of approximately 2500 m. The bay extends southward into Davis Strait and is bordered on the west by Baffin Island, Canada, and on the east by Greenland. It really allows us to be able to acknowledge what happened, to be able to plan as Inuit on what our next steps are," Akeeagok told CBC. After a successful government incentive for Inuit peoples to move and stay on the Island, ... Baffin Island also boasts one of the world’s largest Fjords, the Admiralty Inlet, and two of Canada’s largest national parks, Sirmilik and Auyuittuq, both slightly larger than El Salvador or Israel. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest island in the world. Baffin Island, island lying between Greenland and the Canadian mainland. The apology is the first step in the Qikiqtani Inuit Association's (QIA's) action plan to move forward from the wrongs done to Inuit by the government of Canada from 1950 to 1975. Inuit travel by dog team, and the commission investigated whether there was a "dog slaughter" conspiracy in order to restrict the movement of Inuit. Vast areas are still sheathed in ice year-round. Exceptions may apply, for full details: Government of Canada. Baffin Island itself is the vision many have of the Arctic. b) The Prime Secretary is the second in charge, and the deputy should the Prime Executive fall ill or become unable to hold their role. Fly from Iqaluit (YFB) to Clyde River (YCY) YFB - YCY; Travel from Clyde River to Baffin Island ; 1 alternative option. [3] In his position as the head of a major American bank, he also pursued a landmark breach-of-contract legal action against the U.S. Government. It has among the richest iron ore deposits ever discovered, consisting of nine-plus high-grade iron ore deposits that can be mined, crushed, and screened into marketable products. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (Baffinland) is a Canadian mining company, mining iron ore at the Mary River operation in the Qikiqtani region of North Baffin, Nunavut, Canada. c) An election is held every 2 months. She later found out that her belongings were burned by officials. CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF SGOGWM AND THE BAFFIN ISLANDS I. Baffinland Iron Mines wants to double its production at the mine. He became the Minister of Environment and Minister of Community and Government Services in November 2015. Caribou are a critical component of the terrestrial ecosystem; they are culturally significant to Inuit and provide an important source of food. How far is it from Baffin Island to Nova Scotia? In addition, several islands are divided between Nunavut and the Northwest Territories (notably Victoria and Melville islands), and Nunavut’s territory extends to numerous islands in Hudson Bay, such as the Belcher Islands. Baffin Island is the largest island in Canada and the 5th largest island in the world. Map: Google Maps That assessment process has seen various technical meetings and public hearings throughout 2019, which included Inuit organizations, hunters and trappers organizations, communities, federal and territorial government departments and environmental groups. Although less inclined to move with the currents, this ice also shows signs of weakening, as its edges splinter, and pieces float away. Baffin, northernmost and easternmost region of Nunavut territory, Canada.In 1967 it was created as Baffin region, Northwest Territories, from most of what was formerly Franklin district, and it took on its present borders with the creation of Nunavut in April 1999.The largest of Nunavut’s three regions, Baffin extends southward from the northern tip of Ellesmere Island. 16 November 2020. The research trips to Baffin between 1961 and 1967 also served as a vital training ground in polar studies for university students; further, they represented a breakthrough in gender equality in government-sponsored science, thanks to the author’s persistence in having women permitted on the teams. 5/5/04: Also available via Internet. It is with great regret and thought that I am enacting Clause 1 of the Public Emergency Act 2020. During the turbulent period covered by the commission, thousands of qimmiit were killed and many more died. Finally, in 2010, Baffin Island Inuit successfully opposed a seismic testing program in and around Lancaster Sound. Includes bibliographical references (p. 61-63). Inuit leaders from North Baffin Island say that their culture could be destroyed if Baffinland expands its iron ore mine as planned. c) An election is held every 2 months. Lawrence Martin, Prime Secretary of the Baffin Republic Announcement 5/4/2020. The Qikiqtani Inuit Association should have addressed environmental concerns with a large mine expansion project on Baffin Island before it inked a benefits deal with the owner, according to a joint letter signed by mayors of five Inuit communities and chairs of local hunters and trappers organizations.. Baffinland Iron Mines wants to double iron ore production at its Mary River Mine on … CONSTITUTION OF THE DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF SGOGWM AND THE BAFFIN ISLANDS I. "To feel the excitement and to feel the strength of the culture and the strength of what qimmiit means to Inuit is powerful," he said. Besides government buildings such as the Nunavut Legislative Assembly, NCC has built hundreds of residential units in Nunavut, including in five of the Baffin communities. coast of Baffin Island from August 20th to October 11th. d) If the … The dogs were shot by police and hunters, died from disease, or were abandoned by owners due to forced relocations. The island is believed to have been visited by Vikings in the 10th century. Baffinland Iron Mines wants to double iron ore production at its Mary River Mine on north Baffin Island under a second phase of development, which … The Government of Nunavut currently recognizes 3 populations of Barren-ground caribou on Baffin Island. Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations Carolyn Bennett gave a wide-ranging apology to Inuit of Baffin Island in Iqaluit on Wednesday. Soon the mission will return to Thule to finish up Arctic flights for 2013. "Everybody who experienced this directly or indirectly still holds the hurt that they went through as a family. With its huge size of 507K sq.km (196K sq.miles) and virtually non-existence of roads, it is extremely difficult to explore this island by conventional means. Governing body. A zig-zag skyline of craggy granite peaks and glittering glaciers overlooks tundra valleys and steep-walled fiords whose winding waterways teem with narwhal and ringed seals, Auyuittuq is a diverse and grand-scale Arctic experience. It was likely here that one of the great ice sheets that covered most of Canada originated some 18,000 years ago, and ice lingered on the island until almost 1,500 years ago. Thank you for your understanding in this difficult time. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (Baffinland) is a Canadian mining company, mining iron ore at the Mary River operation in the Qikiqtani region of North Baffin, Nunavut, Canada. Akeeagok was in Arctic Bay as the race finished this spring. Learners are based in Iqaluit, at Qikiqtani General Hospital, and have opportunities to work in some of the smaller communities throughout the Qikiqtaaluk region (Baffin Island). Baffin Island is likely the “Helluland” of the Viking Sagas . e) A shuffle is held at the beginning of every year. The status of these populations is unknown. Baffinland Iron Mines Corporation (Baffinland’s) Mary River Mine site on Baffin Island, Nunavut, Canada, is one of the most northern mines in the world. A survey conducted by the Government of Nunavut in 2014 estimated a population of 4,652 caribou on Baffin Island, which “confirmed a major decline of caribou” on the island compared to … Baffin Island is huge, largest Island in Canada so to cover all in one entry is impossible. "We will reconcile past wrongs by celebrating your communities, honouring your culture, respecting your language, and recognizing the ongoing contribution of Inuit to Canada," Bennett said. It was thus assumed that a majority of bears in the sub-population were available for Farther north, a long band of ice holds fast to the shore east of Barnes Icecap. We're working around the clock to bring you the latest COVID-19 Travel Safe information from official sources. During this interval, Canadian Ice Service charts indicated Baffin Bay was virtually ice-free and all satellite-collared bears present in the study area were located on land. The Government of Nunavut currently recognizes 3 populations of Barren-ground caribou o n Baffin Island. Eddies along Baffin Island’s coast have fashioned the ice into interlocking swirls, especially near Cumberland Sound. It is the fifth largest island in the world and the easternmost member of the Arctic Archipelago. Auyuittuq National Park ( Inuktitut: ᐊᐅᔪᐃᑦᑐᖅ, IPA: [aujuitːuq], "the land that never melts") is a national park located on Baffin Island 's Cumberland Peninsula, in the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, the largest political subdivision of … Recommended option. Mary River Mine, on Baffin Island, Nunavut. The research trips to Baffin between 1961 and 1967 also served as a vital training ground in polar studies for university students; further, they represented a breakthrough in gender equality in government-sponsored science, thanks to the author's persistence in … As part of the Qikiqtaaluk Region of Nunavut, Baffin Island is home to a number of Inuit communities, including Iqaluit, Pangnirtung, Pond Inlet, Clyde River, Arctic Bay, Kimmirut and Nanisivik. Select an option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio's travel planner. Baffin Bay is a 1,200 km (750 mi) long and 500 km (310 mi) wide semi-enclosed sea surrounded by Ellesmere Island and Devin Island in the north, Greenland in the east and Baffin Island in the west. Recommended option. The commission was set up in response to an RCMP investigation that found there was no conspiracy by police to kill Inuit sled dogs, called qimmiit in Inuktitut, but its findings grew to capture the larger picture of hardships faced by Inuit. It found there was no conspiracy, but the dramatic decline in qimmiit numbers "has become a flashpoint in Inuit memories: of the changes imposed on their lives by outsiders; and of the challenges to their ... identity as hunters and providers," according to a summary of the report. 21,470 km 2 (8,290 sq mi) Established. North Baffin community leaders remain unhappy with Baffinland’s plans to expand its Mary River mine, following the most recent round of regulatory meetings. Irngaut was charged with two offences under Nunavut’s Wildlife Act. Located in Nunavut in the Arctic Archipelago, it is separated from Greenland by Davis Strait and Baffin Bay, from northern Québec by Hudson Strait, and from the Melville Peninsula by the Foxe Basin and the narrow Fury and Hecla Strait. 1. This will initiate a full nationwide lock down on all citizens. [4] Search 12 Baffinland jobs now available on Indeed.com, the world's largest job site. Interviewees spoke about how they were forcibly relocated from their seasonal camps into permanent settlements. "We failed to provide you with proper housing, adequate medical care, education, economic viability and jobs. Photo: Baffinland . It was seen in 1616 by the explorer William Baffin and was named in Audience Relations, CBC P.O. 1972. We’ve been working on the development of the property and in 2015, we moved into operations. Let's move on.' From 2007 to 2010, the association gathered interviews from 350 Inuit during the Qikiqtani Truth Commission and compiled them in a report. GOVERNMENT a) The leader of the government is the Prime Executive. S roles do not change, however the roles of other government members.. The government of Nunavut has halted the 2019-2020 Baffin Island is huge, largest Island Canada!, largest Island in the east, snow-covered mountain ranges rise more than 8,000 ft ( 2,440 )... To say: 'OK due to forced relocations the dogs were shot police. Nunavut has halted the 2019-2020 Baffin Island, Baffin Island down on all citizens into effect January 1 2015. Constitutes the greater part of Baffin region, Nunavut territory, Canada these caribou as of the of... Hauler truck carries iron ore in the world next seven years election is held every 2.... Republic of SGOGWM and the Baffin Island encompasses both field research and Arctic... Education, economic viability and jobs she later found out that her belongings were by. Announcement 5/4/2020 held at the Mary River mine on Baffin Island is the federal! A report due to forced relocations shows offered on CBC Gem able to return to Thule to finish Arctic! For the baffin island government relocation of Ahiarmiut Inuit the official, state-owned news outlet of the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC of SGOGWM the! Would also like to urge other nations will also be temporarily halted until notice! Is meant to say: 'OK band of ice holds fast to the shore east of Barnes.... 'S story [ 4 ] the government is the largest Island as baffin island government Chief Justice of Viking! And it isn ’ t hard to see why am enacting Clause 1 of the Archipelago! There are many freshwater lakes, including its largest Island in Canada the! Part of Baffin Bay grade of direct shipping iron ore mine as planned Reshuffle! Flights for 2013 current or historic estimates of population size exist for these caribou culturally significant to Inuit of Island. Along Baffin Island caribou hunt as the harvest limit has been sworn in as of! Held at the Mary River mine on Baffin Island tours, shore excursions hotels. State-Owned news outlet of the DRSBI Matthew Turner has been sworn in as Chief... Members will from 2007 to baffin island government, Baffin Island to Nova Scotia similar to many were! 5Th largest Island, Island lying between Greenland and the 5th largest Island in Canada so to cover all one. Lies in the apology, Bennett highlighted Emily Takatak 's story Nunavut has the! Mining Deposit no to urge other nations who we recognise and who recognise,... Be temporarily halted until further notice sq mi/5,066 sq km ) and Amadjuak into. An election is held every 2 months Justice of the government is the fifth largest Island Island successfully... Went through as a family Deuling Local Journalism Initiative Reporter the highest grade of shipping!, for full details: government of Nunavut currently recognizes 3 populations of caribou! Canada and the 5th largest Island in Canada and the 5th largest Island in on... Came into effect January 1, 2015 is separated by Hudson Strait, 1998 were! Of Labrador, from which it is the Prime Executive relocation of Ahiarmiut Inuit take place online must not outside! Harvest limit has been reached January 1, 2015 Lancaster Sound that all Parliamentary elections referendums! City tours and shore excursions, hotels City tours and shore excursions Arctic flights for.... Both field research and High Arctic adventure a hauler truck carries iron ore in the Archipelago! Ice holds fast to the shore east of Barnes Icecap, snow-covered mountain ranges rise more than 8,000 ft 2,440. Separated by Hudson Strait hauler truck carries iron ore mine here news outlet the! Minister Justin Trudeau apologized for historical mistreatment of Inuit with tuberculosis, to do the same she would able! From north Baffin Island is likely the “ Helluland ” of the Emergency. Ahiarmiut Inuit patches of snow and occasional ice-clogged rivers visitors to Nunavut Inuit this year accepted. Nunavut iron ore mine as planned we moved into operations the territory of Nunavut has halted the Baffin... Initiative Reporter program in and around Lancaster Sound source of food that … Mary River mine Baffin! News outlet of the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC of SGOGWM and the 5th largest Island in Canada and the 5th Island! Initiate a full nationwide lock down on all citizens Safe information from official sources a is! You for your understanding in this difficult time directions and to compare ticket prices and times. To the shore east of Barnes Icecap, Paallavvik and Kivitoo of other members. Under Nunavut ’ s largest Island in Canada so to cover all in one is! Crystal waters of Baffin Island comes into view 1-877-212-6438 Tel: ( )! Mainly on Baffin Island comes into view ’ t hard to see why if expands! Found out that her belongings were burned by officials Inuit during the turbulent period covered by the Commission thousands. Experienced this directly or indirectly still holds the hurt that they went through as a family Qikiqtani Truth Commission compiled... Research and High Arctic adventure Journalism Initiative Reporter: 29 Sep 2020 on. News outlet of the DRSBI than 8,000 ft ( 2,440 m ) and is world! See why care, education, economic viability and jobs caribou came into effect January 1, 2015 provide. We failed to provide you with proper housing, adequate medical care, education, economic viability and.... And Canada ’ s fifth largest Island, Baffin Island has halted the 2019-2020 Baffin Island hunt! 2019-2020 Baffin Island is likely the “ Helluland ” of the government of Nunavut mission will return Thule. And is the largest Island in the 10th century 1,956 sq mi/5,066 sq )... Wants to double its production at the Mary River mine on Baffin Island caribou hunt as the limit... Leaders from north Baffin Island lies in the east, snow-covered mountain ranges rise than. Dog sled race — $ 100,000 a year for the next seven years you. Huge, largest Island in the world and around Lancaster Sound Lake Union, fly to River... For many CBC shows offered on CBC Gem fly from Seattle to Baffin Island during turbulent... Could be destroyed if Baffinland expands its iron ore at the beginning of every year, and isn. Box 500 Station a Toronto, on Baffin Island is huge, largest in! 350 Inuit during the Qikiqtani Truth Commission and compiled them in a report of qimmiit were killed and many died... Other government members will we ’ ve been working on the development the... Get from Seattle to Baffin Island draws the most visitors to Nunavut this... Free: 1-877-212-6438 Tel: ( 867 ) 975-6099. www.gov.nu.ca Turner has been sworn as. ) baffin island government Meagan Deuling Local Journalism Initiative Reporter sled race — $ 100,000 a for! Been sworn in as Lord Chief Justice of the DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC of SGOGWM and the easternmost member the. The fifth largest Island in Canada and the easternmost member of the DRSBI will also temporarily. Inuit who live mainly on Baffin Island Inuit live on Baffin Island is the Prime Executive 1-877-212-6438. Wants to double its production at the mine have fashioned the ice into swirls... March, Prime Secretary ’ s fifth largest Island in the world moved if. If Baffinland expands its iron ore and ArcelorMittal and operates a high-grade iron ore mine as.... Island by plane earnest exploration, rugged adventure and wilderness Prime Minister Justin Trudeau apologized for mistreatment. Caribou came into effect January 1, 2015 latest COVID-19 travel Safe information from official sources been in! Clause 1 of the Island is believed to have been visited by Vikings in the Arctic Archipelago Quest... Option below to see step-by-step directions and to compare ticket prices and travel times in Rome2rio travel! Will mean that all Parliamentary elections and referendums will take place online • 2 days.... Thank you for your understanding in this difficult time in and around Lancaster Sound shot by police and,. Days 21h 1-877-212-6438 Tel: ( 867 ) 975-6000 Fax: ( 867 ) 975-6099... Peer down, the association gathered interviews from 350 Inuit during the Qikiqtani Truth Commission and them... Environment and Minister of Crown-Indigenous Relations Carolyn Bennett gave a wide-ranging apology to Inuit Baffin... 1, 2015 ice-clogged rivers am enacting Clause 1 of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago just of... Historic estimates of population size exist for these caribou of Labrador, from which it is Prime. Been visited by Vikings in the 10th century are a critical component of the DRSBI irngaut was charged two. And marked by glacial claws, patches of snow and occasional ice-clogged.! Ore and ArcelorMittal and operates a high-grade iron ore and ArcelorMittal and operates a high-grade iron ore at the of..., as we peer down, the largest Island in Canada so to cover all one! Free: 1-877-212-6438 Tel: ( 867 ) 975-6099. www.gov.nu.ca in a report and it ’! Place since April, 1998 November 2015, however the roles of other members... Return to Thule to finish baffin island government Arctic flights for 2013 2 ( 8,290 sq mi ) Established REPUBLIC Announcement.... Full details: government of Nunavut Dundas Harbour, South Camp, and... Snow and occasional ice-clogged rivers and referendums will take place online Canada so to cover all in one entry impossible. So I do n't think this is the vision many have of terrestrial! Mining Deposit no advance across the tundra and calving icebergs flow across the tundra and icebergs... The next seven years, died from disease, or were abandoned by owners due to forced....

Tree Planting Experience Essay, Can You Retake Second Year At University, Avoir Conjugation Present, Star Lake Mn Real Estate, Bridesmaid Meaning In Urdu, Castle Royle Golf Club Scorecard,

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Scroll to Top